Benmelech, Berrebi & Klor
In their research titled “The Economic Cost of Terrorism”, the authors aim to demonstrate a positive relationship between terrorism & unemployment, in that increased terror attacks in the form of suicide bombings by Palestinians against Israeli targets correlate with increased unemployment rates for Palestinians living in Palestine as well as Israel (Benmelech, Berrebi & Klor 2010).
Unlike previously cited studies in the literature on this subject such as by Pape, Moghadam, O’Neil, Davis & Kirk, the authors of this particular research aim to fill a gap by focusing on the economic costs of terrorism on the states harboring terrorists themselves, as opposed to the target state. In this case, the authors analyze 150 suicide cases of attacks between the years of 2000-2006, during which the second Palestinian Uprising took place for the independent variable, and determine its overall effect on the dependent variable of unemployment, which is measured through a survey method encompassing a sample of 20,000 Palestinians.
While the focus of the work is original by focusing on economic costs of the perpetrators & the data is robust, perhaps some variables have been overlooked, which could affect the results and theoretical implications therein.
In “The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism” author Robert Pape demonstrates that retaliatory attacks by Hamas, a militant Palestinian group, against Israeli targets, have produced positive results in the short term for Palestinians, such as the Israeli withdrawal from Gaza in the early 2000s. Pape’s “Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism”, Moghadam’s “Palestinian Suicide Terrorism in the Second Intifada” & O’Neil’s “Towards A Typology of Political Terrorism” altogether further demonstrate the unfounded assumption that unemployment results from Palestinian suicide terrorism. A wider time series, an inclusion of control variables such as media bias, heightened security & military invasion would dramatically change the results of the regressions therein.
Criticisms of the Research
The time period selected seems rather narrow for the given context of a half century long conflict. The Palestinian-Israeli conflict has been going on since 1948. Focusing on a time table that spans only 6 years, ignoring almost a half century’s worth of data, can be misleading. To elaborate further, the trend of unemployment prior to the year 2000 stretching all the way back to the mid twentieth century in Palestine as well as for Palestinians living in Israel might have exhibited a continued rise even amidst an absence of terror attacks against Israeli targets. The time period chosen isn’t representative enough.
Media Portrayals, Employment Discrimination & Minority Exclusion
Results might also be impacted had the research accounted for control variables which should have been controlled for such as increased media propaganda that depict negative portrayals of Palestinians, employment discrimination & the absence of minority protection apparatuses.
The state of Israel instates discriminatory policies against Palestinians which limit their prospects for unemployment, not to mention survival. Various UN charters condemn Israel for negligence towards racist policies against Israeli Arabs, Muslims, Christians and African migrants. Public polls conducted in Israel measuring levels of Israeli racism against Arabs support this claim. Surely negative media portrayals, discrimination in employment opportunities & the absence of political representation or security apparatuses for minorities are variables overlooked which hinder Palestinian unemployment.
Even in education there is discrimination. Despite being nominally part of various conventions & charters against racism, scarcely any Palestinians are enrolled in Jewish schools, where the quality of education is significantly higher. Israeli restrictions on the Palestinian economy resulted in heightened unemployment (Davis & Kirk 2013). By 2008, the Gaza Strip’s unemployment rate reached 71%. New laws regarding land ownership in Israel are also believed to have worsened discrimination against Arabs.
Property seizures, imprisonment of political prisoners & even children, violent military assaults by the Israeli government & settlement expansion, all of which experience different rates of occurrence over time and might have drastic impacts on Palestinian unemployment, but only within the Palestinian territories.
Perhaps a survey of Israeli perception of the likelihood employing a Palestinian could be modeled to demonstrate a control on inherent discrimination.
And to test a correlation between the frequency of displaying violent images of Palestinians on the media in a certain region & during a certain time period in Israel with the degree of employment. This would be ideally measured overtime to demonstrate whether there is a correlation.
These factors, plus widening the time series to an appropriate window stretching back to the commencement of suicide attacks by Palestinians (1980s) and stretching to the most recent suicide attack, would perhaps all produce variant results and affect the theoretical conclusion and observations therein.
The research largely overlooks significant control variables & more broad, representative time series. Future research thus should include a broader time frame, and control for increases in the aforementioned intervening variables, such as negative media portrayals of Palestinians inside Israel, settlement expansion, discrimination against Arabs in politics, economics & society such as education, violent & disproportionate military campaigns & property seizures in the Palestinian territories. Future research should also consider a balanced panel of authorship in order to help diversify scholarship & consideration of otherwise overlooked variables.
With regards to the conflict itself, any true hope would be the equal recognition indigenous rights of both nations. The question is: Who is willing?
A truly free and democratic Middle East will be possible once the abandonment of one sided, prejudiced logic is exhibited by all parties involved, regional & global.
Palestinian terrorism may or may not demonstrate a relationship with unemployment in Israel, with the inclusion all the aforementioned control variables & the broadening of the time series.
The literature has suggested that suicide terrorism has often resulted in concessions benefitting Palestinians. So perhaps weighing the priority of employment in Israel against the the overall objective of regaining lost territory for Palestinians might also help depict a more accurate picture of the motives, incentives & true results of actions on both sides.
Benmelech, Berrebi, & Klor. (2010). The Economic Cost of Harboring Terrorism. Journal of Conflict Resolution. 54(2). 331-353.
Davis & Kirk. (2013). Palestine and the Palestinians in the 21st Century. Indiana University Press.
Pape, R. A. (2006). Dying to win: The strategic logic of suicide terrorism. Random House Incorporated.
Moghadam, A. (2003). Palestinian suicide terrorism in the second intifada: Motivations and organizational aspects. Studies in conflict and terrorism, 26(2), 65-92.
O’Neill, B. E. (1978). Towards a typology of political terrorism: The Palestinian resistance movement. Journal of International Affairs, 17-42.
Spotify link below!
KRIKORIAN Records LLC ©
Below is a detailed Business Plan for KRIKORIAN Records LLC ©, OBDNT ™ & DK Studios & Publishing ©. Thank you.
DK Studios & Publishing ©
I’ve struggled all my life through poverty, familial & partnership betrayals, political constructs like white supremacy & ethnocentrism, & religious & communal disenfranchisement.
I’ve suffered immensely — being a “DREAMer” — for the past 22 years of my life — took a toll on my health, physically & mentally. I sought help.
For so long, I’ve lived essentially a prisoner.
As a student, I was denied my human rights & discriminated against.
I was qualified for $40,000 of duly earned federal aid for graduate students; a 75% bright futures scholarship for undergraduate studies; yet was denied access due to my status, including all private loans. Being a person of color, an Armenian-Syrian of ME descent, I suffered institutionalized racism. As a result, I worked tireless jobs to facilitate the difficult journey my family and I were forced to endure.
Seeing my country ravaged by war, being an Armenian Christian & Muslim, all these together have only added to my difficulties. But I have immense faith & this has guided me to seek a better life & to help others gain the same courage, and to challenge political constructs & betrayals that are unjust to society and me.
I am a musician and my dream is to establish my brand. Below I’ve listed an outline for the business plan. It is a hybrid — seeking both investors for those who are interested in a stake (maximum 5%) as well as donations for those who want to support unconditionally.
- Methods of Revenue:
- Unique & original production by “Danny K” ©
- Recording & Engineering by “DK Studios & Publishing” © brand
- Collection of digital & performance royalties for all artists signed to KRIKORIAN Records ©
- Merchandise, live performance venue, management & branding of artists, specialize in Middle Eastern & Armenian vintage arts, crafts & music – vinyl, CDs, rugs & other fellow Armenian & Middle Eastern (MENA) goods will be available for sale.
Expected annual revenue 2019: $1,000,000
2025: $1 b
KRIKORIAN Records © – label office handles all administrative & accounting/financial functions & tasks of management of signed artists.
OBDNT Live & Aesthetics, Design © – visual design studio for graphic design, videography, direction & web-design; also the brand for the live performance venue – a concert hall.
DK Studios & Publishing © – record, produce, song-write for Danny K & clients & collect digital sale, performance & other royalties from commercial uses of music by Danny K & clients.
Equipment – $40,000 total – Recording, production, concert venue & visual design
Software: Adobe Suite, Logic X, Pro Tools, Findasounds, Komplete 11
Room Treatment: Auralex Acoustics
Instruments (various families) specified: Shiny Red Strat Electric Guitar, Zebra-top Acoustic Guitar, Mellotron Keyboard & Steinway Grand Piano.
Eastern Instruments: Bouzouki, Out, Santur, Qanun, Duduk, Kamanche, Theremin & Balalaika.
Gear: BAE preamp, Goliath Interface, Blue Mic, Camera (photo/video), Tripod, Drawing Pad, Vinyl Player
Misc: Armenian & West Asian (Middle Eastern) Vinyl, Vintage Armenian Crafts – posters, films, relics, antiques.
Facility – $10,000 a month/$120,000 year
Location – Conroy or Turkey Lake (DP) – Orlando, FL
Audio Mechanical/Electrical Engineering:
Trip to Yerevan & Middle East/West Asia (essentially Armenian Diaspora locations) & engineer DKDM drum machine (inspired by J Dilla & MPC) with original authentic Armenian sounds from each family of instruments — percussion, woodwind, brass, keyboard, strings, electronic. I also want to engineer my own instruments — unique woodwinds & stringed instruments as well as synthetic choirs. These will be part of the “DK Studios” brand.
Design & Architecture: Armenian (West Asian/Middle Eastern) style
Investment: Investors will receive earn up to 5% stake in company profits determined annually
Donation: Donations are essentially gifts meant to help the “DK/Danny K” brand establish itself & fulfill the dreams of its owner. All amounts accepted.
Proceeds: 3% of all annual revenue will be donated to the following initiatives equally – Black Lives Matter, Syrian American Medical Association, Armenian National Committee of America & Boycott Divestment & Sanctions.
Tickets: $10 at door
Special Guest: Mehsi Music
Location: Austin’s Coffee
Address: 929 W Fairbanks Ave, Winter Park, FL 32789
Orlando’s very own rising star, Danny K, hip-hop producer and MC is performing his debut show at Austin’s Coffee on Saturday, February 10th. Come out with friends & indulge this rhymefest boombap extravaganza.
Danny K is a “Dreamer”, one of the 800,000 being juggled back and forth by the current administration. Show support by coming out and listening to this journey through music.
Danny K will be showcasing his latest album put together using his new mini-MPC courtesy of AKAI, combined with Armenian/Middle Eastern samples/vinyls, laced with his own original lyricism. Let’s celebrate the night & human innovation! One love. One justice. One truth. We are one in the night.
You can now purchase or stream the entire album “The World to Come by Danny K via Apple Music, iTunes or TIDAL. Click the album cover art (image) or apple music badge for a direct link to the album. Thank you! It will be available on YouTube & Spotify quite soon. Watch the video for the single, Lavash, via YouTube below:
It’s finally here! I present you, “Lavash” – the Music Video, or short film rather. This is the single off my upcoming album: The World to Come LP, which you can stream via Apple Music & Spotify & purchase via iTunes.
Pre-order links will be available very soon. The album is scheduled for a release in mid-April. Listen to the second single “On the Inside” – below:
My debut Armenian anthemic album of masterful proportions is almost complete and will be dropping THIS November (date & title not yet revealed).
This will include show-dates in and outside of Orlando…
the music video for “Lavash”, the album’s single – and official “Lavash” merch (tees).
The album will be available via all streaming and purchasing outlets (not soundcloud – which means other than “Lavash” – the album won’t be free).
PEEP the single NOW – “Lavash”:
– Danny K
Bernie Sanders was not presidential [sadly to say – despite many of his ideals being great – if not the best compared to his counterparts].
That is something the American people are struggling to grasp – especially the youth.
What is – ‘presidential’?
Donald Trump – is not presidential. But for reasons different than Bernie. Bernie is, well, simply put, without any character, really. Despite all the slogans and witty catch phrases, Bernie is just another product of social trends. He isn’t Justin Trudeau. He isn’t Obama. He just doesn’t have any flair. Americans like intellect – but they equally value humor; athleticism; suaveness – or “swagger” in today’s terminology. None of these are characteristic of Sanders.
The same could be said of Donald Trump but for different reasons. He is too uneducated, vulgar, impolite, erratic & irresponsible for such leadership – if not to hold any post. He can barely manage his own funds – or his father’s, rather.
That isn’t to say that Hillary Clinton is ‘presidential’.
Back in ’08, I hadn’t heard of a guy named Barack Obama, but as the campaign progressed, I realized – I had just witnessed the rise of an extraordinary individual. This man is beyond brilliant – something that few people truly appreciate. I can say that the world appreciates Obama more than America – which is quite telling. That isn’t necessarily true – a lot of Americans love our current president. But the ‘other side’ is equally if not more bent on voicing their hatred – to put it ‘mildly’.
Ahead of tonight’s momentous occasion, the first live debate between Clinton & Trump – I share the following sentiment. People often expect too much. This is a sign of…a lack of experience maybe. But other forces play a role too. The world is suffering and yet, the average American struggles to understand the nooks and crannies of his or her own political system and culture.
As an Armenian-Syrian immigrant living in America – I must say that my perspective should be heeded. There are many causes which are directly connected to me that have yet to be addressed or have been horribly managed, by the US wholly but also precisely by US president Barack Obama, whom I continue to support. Why? Because I am not a perfectionist in the political sense – and expect some compromise – not always – but in times of necessity and urgency. There is much change, and much work to be done in the stride towards justice – but it is just that – a stride – a path. We cannot be held back by radical expectations which in themselves seek to paralyze our sense of progress. That being said it is clear to me there is only one candidate worthy of a vote in this election and that reasoning is from contrived a moral and practical logic – that candidate is Hillary Clinton.
So while she isn’t necessarily the perfect candidate – relative to America’s choices – she is definitely presidential.
The US president is a person of immense wisdom and discipline; responsibility and sacrifice; public service and family value. Which of the two candidates possesses these qualities? And if you have to think twice – think again.
What gets me is that Americans want to change parts of their system that are less relevant to domestic and global wellbeing while ignoring the more pressing issues. And then when a tragedy or crisis occurs, Americans are left wondering how or why. Instead of a Wall Street revolution there should be a minority rights and immigration reform revolution. Instead of a focus on spreading democracy abroad we should be seeking to reduce our arbitrary and partial political influence overseas. Issues like these are costing us – but instead Americans wish to focus on ideological ambiguities and polarized politics.
That is why the candidates have dwindled down to the current options available – one representing the so-called establishment while the other represents the ugliest part of the establishment disguised as anti-establishment.
It is undoubtable that America and the world must implement comprehensive political reform – but this is likely an impossible feat under the auspices of a hypothetical President Trump. On the contrary, Hillary, like Obama (but perhaps to a lesser degree since she is more hawkish) – will pave the road for future generations to at least further the cause of progressivism in its purest form.
Perhaps future generations will reflect a more balanced perspective on US politics – representing minorities; women; LGBTQ; etc. But this cannot be associated with any particular ideological strand or populist trend as it has been in this election. American individualism and personal responsibility, contrary to the ‘8th grader youtube conspiracy video viewer mentality’ – is not preserved or protected by the far left or right – but rather, by a careful, tolerant moderate centrist. So when I say that Hillary Clinton is in fact presidential – that is precisely why. She isn’t just the echo of our grievances – but also of our reason.