Who Partakes in Political Violence?


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Terrorism is a tactic adopted by particular groups for a political objective. The individuals that partake in this violence often exhibit common characteristics. One of these characteristics is impoverishment (Lee 2011). In parts of the world where state capacity to serve the public is low, terrorist group participation is more likely. In other words, these individuals come from poor backgrounds. But contrarily, individuals from higher economic classes, also tend to be involved. This suggests that the middle class is least likely to join in, while the lower middle and upper class are more vulnerable (Kavanagh 2011).

On the other hand, terrorism has a different motive. In this case, terrorism is analyzed from the individual perspective, versus the structural perspective. Concepts like emotion and humiliation are considered here to be powerful motivators towards violence. The underlying belief is that, particularly in the Islamic world, a sense of humiliation drives individuals to terror. This humiliation stems from cultural factors such as shame-based traditions as much as it does from a history of subordination to outsiders such as Europe and America, through arrangements like Sykes-Picot. Humiliation can be exacerbated by internal inequalities within nation-states (Fattah & Fierke 2009). Perhaps a less romanticized perspective argues that existential factors like desire and glory motivate individuals among other factors that are political to engage in terrorism (Cottee et al 2011).

The most compelling argument seems to focus on the political orientation of terrorism through the individual lens. This is because it considers the cultural dimension of politics which drives individuals to retaliation or aggression. Social factors like poverty and authoritarianism cannot be separated from the external powers at play, and their influence historically and in today’s world on regions where terrorism is most prevalent. Equally, we cannot ignore the complicity of national governments in worsening conditions and enabling terrorism.

 

Cottee, Simon and Keith Hayward. 2011. “Terrorist (E)motives: The Existential Attractions of Terrorism.” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 34: 963-986

Fattah, Khaled and Fierke, K.M. 2009. “A Clash of Emotions: The Politics of Humiliation and Political Violence in The Middle East.” European Journal of International Relations 15(1): 67-93

Kavanagh, J. (2011). Selection, Availability, and Opportunity: The Conditional Effect of Poverty on Terrorist Group Participation. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 55(1), 106-132.

Lee, A. (2011). Who Becomes a Terrorist? Poverty, Education, and the Origins of Political Violence . World Politics , 203-245.

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Israel: A Democracy?


The Middle East betrays itself. Before we Arabs can tackle global injustices, we must tackle ourselves. Who among us has betrayed us? Who among us has been blinded? Every nation in the world is plagued with traitors, but how can we distinguish foreign evils from evils within our own society? Everytime we defeat our foreign enemies, they find ways to turn our own against us. This means that the problem lies within our societies, within our cultures, religions, within the minds and souls of our people, which have been dissected, picked, and pulled apart.

The ideological forces that separate Syrians from Syrians, from the Great Syrian cause, of being independent, autonomous, free and sovereign, these forces of religious fanaticism, ego and anger are blinding and ignorant, and they are fueled by our enemies, enemies of moderation, liberalism, secularism, and humility.

Only secular nations should exist, that grant all individuals inalienable rights without give preference to some individuals over others. Israel exists only because its founders believe it has the right to exist as its own state even though in the modern world only nations that are non-religious should exist.

Hmm….


Arabs are so easily manipulated.

Israel is laughing at all the Arabs calling for revolution in Egypt and Syria.

Why?

Because these revolutions are farce — only distractions orchestrated by Israel to distract Arabs from the real problem — Israeli expansionism and intervention in Arab affairs. 

Meanwhile the House of Saud (the entire Gulf for that matter), the King of Jordan, and half of Lebanon sit on their asses and reap the benefits of anarchical capitalism and conservative sociological platforms.

When will the Arabs learn?

When will the Arabs abandon pretentiousness?

If you have abandoned truth and justice for glory and fame and vanity, then you are not Arab. You are a pawn of the imperialist.